Three recent court decisions from three different states — New York, Pennsylvania, and Alabama — add to the rogue’s gallery of valuation cases stemming from poorly conceived and/or poorly implemented buy-sell agreements among shareholders or LLC members.

Each one, in its own way, teaches a valuable lesson for lawyers charged with drafting such agreements, and also highlights the wisdom of consulting with appraisal experts at the time of drafting.

New York: The Nimkoff Case

The Nimkoff case is an old friend of this blog, and I do mean old. I first wrote about the case in its infancy, in 2010 (read here). Eight years later, following discovery and a dozen or so motions, the case has yet to be tried.

Nimkoff is a fight over the value of a 3.6% membership interest in a single-asset realty holding LLC owned by a group of medical doctors. The plaintiff is the wife-executrix of one of the doctors, whose death in 2004 triggered the LLC’s obligation to purchase the deceased member’s interest for a “Stated Value” in accordance with the operating agreement which also required that the Stated Value be updated annually. Continue Reading Lessons From a Trio of Dysfunctional Buy-Sell Agreements

 

I’m pleased to present my sixth annual list of picks for the past year’s ten most significant business divorce cases. This year’s selections, featuring seven appellate decisions, include significant rulings on a variety of issues in dissolution and appraisal cases involving closely held corporations, partnerships and limited liability companies. All ten were featured in this blog previously; click on the case name to read the full treatment. And the winners are:

 

  1. Holdrum Investments, N.V. v. Edelman, 2013 NY Slip Op 30369(U) (Sup Ct NY County Jan. 31, 2013), in which Manhattan Supreme Court Justice Anil C. Singh followed a 1994 First Department precedent in rejecting the argument that a New York court lacks subject matter jurisdiction to dissolve a foreign entity, in that case a Delaware limited partnership.
  2. Doyle v. Icon, LLC, 103 AD3d 440, 2013 NY Slip Op 00797 (1st Dept Feb. 7, 2013), where the First Department dismissed a complaint seeking judicial dissolution of an LLC, holding that allegations by a minority member of systematic exclusion by the controlling members, without more, fail to state adequate grounds for relief under LLC Law § 702.
  3. Sullivan v. Troser Management, Inc., 104 AD3d 1127, 2013 NY Slip Op 01634 (4th Dept Mar. 15, 2013), a 10-year litigation over a stock buy-out where the parties never updated the called-for Certificate of Value, in which the Fourth Department rejected the purchasing shareholder’s contention that the buy-out price should be based on book value.
  4. Gelman v. Buehler, 20 NY3d 534, 2013 NY Slip Op 01991 (Ct App Mar. 26, 2013), in which the Court of Appeals construed the phrases “definite term” and “particular undertaking is specified” as used in Section 62 of the Partnership Law in dismissing a complaint for wrongful termination of an oral partnership agreement.
  5. Mizrahi v. Cohen, 104 AD3d 917, 2013 NY Slip Op 02056 (2d Dept Mar. 27, 2013), where the Second Department ordered a buy-out of the defendant 50% member by the plaintiff 50% member as an equitable remedy in an LLC dissolution case.
  6. Born to Build LLC v. 1141 Realty LLC, 105 AD3d 425, 2013 NY Slip Op 02193 (1st Dept Apr. 2, 2013), in which the First Department ordered dismissal of a complaint for judicial dissolution of an LLC, brought by a party who purportedly acquired an undocumented membership interest at a judgment execution sale, where the LLC agreement negated the existence of the membership interest at issue.
  7. Matter of Sunburst Associates, Inc., 106 AD3d 1224, 2013 NY Slip Op 03368 (3d Dept May 9, 2013), an unusual case in which the Third Department dismissed a deadlock dissolution petition brought by a putative 50% shareholder on the ground that he had transferred his stock to the other 50% shareholder, notwithstanding evidence that, even after the transfer, the respondent shareholder had signed corporate tax returns reflecting the two of them as 50/50 shareholders. 
  8. Breidbart v. Wiesenthal, 108 AD3d 492, 2013 NY Slip Op 05040 (2d Dept July 3, 2013), where the Second Department held that a retired partner, or the estate of a deceased partner, who elects to receive post-withdrawal profits in lieu of interest under Section 73 of the Partnership Law is not entitled to recover appreciation on the value of the partnership assets.
  9. Ruggiero v. Ruggiero, 2013 NY Slip Op 31955(U) (Sup Ct Suffolk County July 29, 2013), in which Suffolk County Justice Emily Pines opted for one appraiser’s income approach over the other appraiser’s market approach in a stock valuation contest involving a family-owned kosher deli.
  10. Feinberg v. Silverberg, Decision and Order, Index No. 3120-11 (Sup Ct Nassau County Sept. 6, 2013), a decision by Nassau County Justice Vito DeStefano in which the court ruled that the petitioner’s alleged bad faith and creation of feigned deadlock is a cognizable defense in a proceeding for judicial dissolution under Business Corporation Law § 1104.

The next time someone tells me they’re preparing a shareholder buy-sell agreement using a fixed price memorialized in a so-called Certificate of Value, I’m going to tell them to rename it a Certificate of Legal Fees, and I’m going to tell them to read the court’s opinion in Sullivan v. Troser Management, Inc., 2013 NY Slip Op 01634 (4th Dept Mar. 15, 2013).

When intelligently prepared and implemented, buy-sell agreements among co-owners of closely-held businesses are extremely useful and effective devices to preserve business continuity and financial stability while providing a fair exit mechanism for withdrawing owners and fair compensation for the estates of deceased owners, often funded by cross-purchase plan life insurance policies.

The pricing aspect of a buy-sell agreement is perhaps its most critical feature. There are three pricing methods in general use: (1) fixed price, that is, a dollar amount usually found in an appended Certificate of Value or Schedule; (2) formula price, which can take any one of many forms based on the company’s financial metrics and/or the withdrawing owner’s historic compensation; and (3) a process-based approach involving one or more appraisers who will value the selling owner’s interest in the company as of the date of the triggering event (death, notice of withdrawal, etc.). Continue Reading Missing Certificate of Value Spawns Decade-Long Lawsuit Over Buy-Sell Agreement